Global Gender Disparities in Science


Authors: Vincent Larivière, Chaoqun Ni, Yves Gingras, Blaise Cronin, Cassidy R. Sugimoto

 

Summary.

We present here a global and cross-disciplinary scientometric analysis of the relationship between gender and a) output, b) collaboration, and c) impact (measured through citations). We analyzed 5,483,841 research papers and review articles published between 2008-2012 in journals indexed in the Web of Science. Women are underrepresented across nearly all countries and disciplines. Globally, women account for fewer than 30% of fractionalized authorships, whereas men represent slightly more than 70%. We find that in the most productive countries, all articles with women in dominant author positions receive fewer citations than those with men in the same positions. And this citation disadvantage is accentuated by the fact that women's publication portfolios are more domestic than their male colleagues in all of the most productive countries. Given that citation now play a central part in the evaluation of researchers, this situation can only worsen gender disparities.

 

Productivity GeoMap

Click the image to view our interactive map in a new window

Note: Due to the interactive nature, this figure is best viewed in Google Chrome
Click to View Interactive Map
 

Productivity Discipline

Click the image to view our interactive map in a new window

Note: Due to the interactive nature, this figure is best viewed in Google Chrome
Click to View Interactive Figure
 

Normalized Average Citation Impact by Types of Collaboration

Click the image to view our interactive map in a new window

Click to View Interactive Figure
 

Female and Male National/International Collaboration by Country

Click the image to view our interactive map in a new window

Click to View Interactive Figure
 

Supplemental Tables S4 & S5

Table S4:

The number of distinct authors and given names falling in different gender categories, and the percentage (of all and of all minus initials) of those assigned a gender.

Table S5:

The number and percentage of distinct authors and paper-author combinations by country.

Cassidy R. Sugimoto
School of Informatics and Computing, Indiana University
1320 E. 10th St., LI 011
Bloomington, IN 47405-3907
T: 812.856.2323
E C: sugimoto [@] indiana.edu


 

 
The primary support for this work came from the Science of Science, Innovation and Policy Program within the National Science Foundation (Grant No. 1158670). Support also came from the Établissement de nouveaux professeurs-chercheurs programme of the Fonds de recherche du Québec – Société et culture (FRQSC) in Canada and the international funding initiative Digging into Data program with funding from the National Science Foundation in the United States (Grant No. 1208804) and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council in Canada.
©2013     Interactive Maps and Figures Created by Chaoqun Ni   |   General Web Design by Timothy D Bowman