We present here a global and cross-disciplinary scientometric analysis of the relationship between gender and a) output, b) collaboration, and c) impact (measured through citations). We analyzed 5,483,841 research papers and review articles published between 2008-2012 in journals indexed in the Web of Science. Women are underrepresented across nearly all countries and disciplines. Globally, women account for fewer than 30% of fractionalized authorships, whereas men represent slightly more than 70%. We find that in the most productive countries, all articles with women in dominant author positions receive fewer citations than those with men in the same positions. And this citation disadvantage is accentuated by the fact that women's publication portfolios are more domestic than their male colleagues in all of the most productive countries. Given that citation now play a central part in the evaluation of researchers, this situation can only worsen gender disparities.
The number of distinct authors and given names falling in different gender categories, and the percentage (of all and of all minus initials) of those assigned a gender.
The number and percentage of distinct authors and paper-author combinations by country.